Interesting info about BP fuel
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  1. #1
    1000+ Posts Dave's Avatar
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    Default Interesting info about BP fuel

    I've had this sitting on my computer for a while when i was comparing fuels from the different companies and thought you guys might find it interesting. With your current debates about fuels. Notice how with ultimate stoich is 14.4 not 14.7:1 and max power is made at 12:1.
    (from a pdf that is too big too attach).
    Dave
    FUEL, OCTANE & POWER


    INCREASING OCTANE DOES NOT INCREASE POWER
    Higher compression and improved engine breathing will increase power. These modifications may lead to detonation or combustion knock which is then eliminated by using fuel with a higher octane.
    ALL PETROLEUM BASED FUELS PRODUCE SIMILAR POWER
    Petrol refining produces a blend of hundreds of different hydrocarbons that have the required properties to meet the needs of spark ignition engines. It is well recognised that varying the blends has little effect on the power produced in an engine.
    BP 100 IS A HIGH OCTANE FUEL THAT HAS GOOD VAPOURISING CHARACTERISTICS
    High Octane fuel is required to avoid detonation when compression pressures are increased by either an increased compression ratio or better breathing. The narrow boiling range of BP 100 will ensure good mixture preparation because the heavier hydrocarbons of normal petrol are avoided. Also the lack of very low boiling temperature hydrocarbons will prevent hot fuel handling problems such as vapour lock.
    BP METHANOL HAS SPECIAL PROPERTIES THAT INCREASE POWER
    Methanol is the only readily available fuel that produces any significant increase in power over petrol. Methanol allows extremely high compression ratios to be used to produce more power. In addition, with methanol the engine can cram more energy into the cylinder for three reasons:

    i. The large amount of fuel being consumed.


    ii. The cooling effect when methanol evaporates raises the density of the mixture, ie. even greater energy content of the mixture.


    iii. Methanol contains oxygen within its chemical structure, which acts like a chemical supercharger.

    Methanol requires 3 times the flow rate of petrol so the fuel supply system requires significant modification.
    Avoid lean mixtures because methanol has a low resistance to re-ignition; the high exhaust valve temperatures caused by slow burning lean mixtures may induce pre-ignition and hence piston damage.
    Issued : February 7, 2002 PET0605 Supersedes : September 4, 2001 Page 2 of 2 BP Australia Limited A.C.N. 004 085 616 Marketing Technical Services

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    TOLUENE IS A COMMON OCTANE BOOSTING COMPONENT
    Toluene (methyl benzene) gives about 1 octane number boost for each 5% added and the mixture may need to be slightly richer also. The higher octane allows the use of a higher compression ratio for more power. Toluene has a high carbon content that may lead to sooty spark plugs so donít assume that this indicates an overly-rich mixture. Toluene is also a good solvent, and high concentrations affect rubber and plastic components in the fuel system.
    RACING FUELS CAN BE TAILOR MADE FOR A PARTICULAR ENGINE
    Some hydrocarbons may be particularly suitable as racing fuel components because of their volatility, octane and combustion characteristics, but refineries are not usually capable of separating them from petrol. For example, in the past Formula One teams expended money and resources tailoring a petrol to suit their particular "engine" and application. However, the benefits were relatively small. Note though, that since the regulations have changed, Formula One teams now use commercially available fuel.
    The following table summarises some important fuel properties:
    <TABLE cellSpacing=0 cellPadding=7 width=718 border=1><TBODY><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    Fuel

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    RON
    typical

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    MON typical

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    Air/fuel ratio
    by mass
    stoichio- metric

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    Air/fuel ratio
    by mass
    maximum power
    #
    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    Latent heat of vapour- isation MJ/kg

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=88>
    Highest
    useful
    compression ratio
    *
    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    BP Lead Replacement Petrol

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    96

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    85

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    14.4

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    12.0

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    0.34

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    9-9.5

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    BP Premium Unleaded

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    96

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    85

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    14.4

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    12.0

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    0.34

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    9 - 9.5

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    BP Regular Unleaded

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    91

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    82

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    14.7

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    12.5

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    0.34

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    8.5 - 9

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    BP Ultimate

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    98

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    87

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    14.4

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    12.0

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    0.34

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    9.5-10

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    BP 100 Racing Fuel

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    110

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    100

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    15.0

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    12.9

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    0.36

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    11.5 - 13

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    BP Methanol Racing Fuel

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    115

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    91

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    6.5

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    4.5

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    1.17

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=35>
    15 - 17

    </TD></TR><TR><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    Toluene

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    124

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    112

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    11.5

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    9.8

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    0.41

    </TD><TD vAlign=top width="14%" height=17>
    13 - 15

    </TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>

    * Approximate compression ratios only - depends on engine design and application.
    # Air/fuel ratios will vary slightly with fuel composition.
    Smaller cylinders with shorter flame path allow higher compression to be used. Very high engine speeds also allow higher compression. For example in racing boats where low speed, high load operation is avoided.


  2. #2
    1000+ Posts Dave's Avatar
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    Default

    Here is some info about Shell optimax (from this info optimax is 98.4ron):

    SHELL OPTIMAX
    PREMIUM UNLEADED PETROL
    24/01/01 14128.doc
    TYPICAL CHARACTERISTICS
    DESCRIPTION UNITS METHODS TYPICAL
    Colour - Visual Yellow
    Octane Number - ASTM D2699 98.4
    Density kg/m
    3 ASTM D4052 760.0

    Distillation - ASTM D86
    10% evaporated @
    oC - 45

    50% evaporated @
    oC - 105

    90% evaporated @
    oC - 155

    Final Boiling Point
    oC - 196

    Copper Corrosion
    (3 hr @ 100
    oC)

    -
    ASTM D130 1a

    Benzene % vol. ASTM D3606 3.3
    Sulphur % mass ASTM D1266 .015
    Ingredients Name CAS Proportion
    Complex mixture of
    hydrocarbon consisting of
    paraffins, cycloparaffins,
    aromatic and olefinic
    hydrocarbons with carbon
    numbers C4 to C12 range.
    Mixture 60-100 %
    Antioxidants, corrosion
    inhibitors, metal deactivators,
    dyes and proprietary
    performance improving
    packages
    Mixture 0-30 %
    Benzene 71-43-2 0-5 %


  3. #3
    1000+ Posts PeterT's Avatar
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    Default

    The AFR for max. power is determined by volumetric efficiency. For example, V8 Supercars running 98 octane, run mid 13's at full power. Another example is the Mi16. It makes a lot more power at 12.7:1 than it does at 12:1 when using 98 octane.

    Max. CR varies greatly also. Head material, chamber shape and piston diameter all have an effect. There's plenty of small high performance cars running 11:1 and above now.
    Last edited by PeterT; 5th August 2004 at 07:32 PM.

    '92 205 Mi16
    '90 Mi16x4

  4. #4
    1000+ Posts Dave's Avatar
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    Default

    Thanks Peter, yeah those CR figures are quite conservative - must be for the worst designed combustion chambers and valve layouts in an iron head

    Dave


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